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यी हुन् असल विद्यार्थीको पंच गुण

पूर्वीय दर्शन चाणक्य नीतिले बच्चा हुर्काउने चाखलाग्दो तरिका सिकाएका छन् । बच्चालाई कस्तो व्यवहार गर्ने, कसरी हुर्काउने भन्ने जस्ता प्रश्नको चित्तबुझ्दो जवाफ छ यसमा । चाणक्य नीतिका केही श्लोक बालबच्चामा नै केन्द्रित छन् ।

कुन उमेरका बच्चालाई के गर्ने ? 

चाणक्य नीतिमा भनिएको छ, पाँच वर्षसम्म बालबच्चालाई एकदमै स्नेह र स्पर्श दिएर हुर्काउनुपर्छ । त्यस अवधिमा उनीहरुलाई गाली गर्ने, पिट्ने काम पटक्कै गर्नुहुँदैन । पाँच वर्षसम्मका बालबच्चालाई शारीरिक वा मानसिक रुपले कुनै दुःख दिनु हुँदैन ।

के भनिन्छ भने यो उमेरमा बालबच्चाको भावनात्मक मस्तिष्क सक्रिय हुन्छ । यसबेला उनीहरुसँग कुनै तर्क हुँदैन । के राम्रो, के नराम्रो भन्ने ज्ञान हुँदैन । यस्तो ज्ञान सात वर्षको उमेरपछि क्रमशः विकास हुन्छ । १५ वर्षसम्म उनीहरुको बौद्धिक विकास राम्ररी भइसकेको हुन्छ । यतिबेला उनीहरुलाई ज्ञान, सीप, कलाको कुरा सिकाउनु एकदमै प्रभावकारी हुन्छ । आफ्नो काम आफैं गर्न दिनुपर्छ । यही उमेरदेखि बालबच्चालाई आत्मनिर्भर बनाउनुपर्छ ।

चाणक्य नीतिमा भनिएको छ, १६ वर्षपछि बच्चालाई अमाबुवाले बच्चाको रुपमा होइन, साथीको रुपमा व्यवहार गर्नुपर्छ । यो उमेरमा आमाबुवा र छोराछोरीले एकअर्काको कुरा सुन्न, तर्क वितर्क गर्न सक्छन् ।

बुवाआमाले मित्रवत् रुपमा छोराछोरीलाई सही मार्गदर्शन दिनुपर्ने हुन्छ ।

असल विद्यार्थीका पाँच गुण

पूर्वीय संस्कारअनुसार आठ वर्षपछि बच्चा शिक्षादीक्षाका लागि पूर्ण रुपमा तयार हुन्छन् । यसपछि उनीहरुलाई थप बौद्धिक र व्यावहारिक ज्ञान जरुरी हुन्छ । अतः चाणक्य नीतिले विद्यार्थीमा हुनुपर्ने पाँच गुणको व्याख्या गरेको छ ।

१. काग जस्तो चनाखो  

बच्चालाई काग जस्तो चनाखो बनाउनुपर्छ । कागको एउटा कथा छ नि आधा भरिएको गाग्रोमा ढुंगा भरेर पानी पिएको । यस्तै जुक्ति लगाउने, हार नमान्ने हरदम चलाख हुनुपर्छ ।

२. बकुल्लाको जस्तो ध्यान 

बकुल्ला उड्ने पंक्षी तर उसको आहार खोलाभित्र छ । अब कसरी अहार खाने त ? बकुल्लाले यसका लागि लामो धैर्यता र एकाग्रता राखेको हुन्छ । खोलाको किनारमा बसेर उसले माछालाई यसरी पर्खिरहेको हुन्छ कि त्यसबाहेक उनको ध्यान अन्यत्र कतै हुँदैन । बच्चामा पनि यस्तै एकाग्रता हुनुपर्छ ।

३. कुकुरको जस्तो निद्रा 

भनिन्छ, कुकुर निदाइरहेको बेला पनि सियो खसेको थाहा पाउँछन् । यसको अर्थ कुकुर जस्तै पातलो निद्रा लिनुपर्छ भन्ने होइन, हरदम जागरुक हुनुपर्छ भन्ने हो । अल्छी, अनावश्यक निद्रा त्याग्नुपर्छ ।

४. अल्पहारी 

अत्यधिक भोजनले शरीरलाई तन्दुरुस्त राख्ने होइन, बरु पेटलाई विकारग्रस्त बनाउँछ । अत्यधिक खानाले शरीरलाई भद्दा र अल्छी पनि बनाउँछ । त्यसैले विद्यार्थीले हल्का, सुपाच्य, सन्तुलित खाना खानुपर्छ, जसले शरीरमा पोषण त पुगोस् तर विकार जम्मा नहोस् । यसले उनीहरुको शारीरिक र मानसिक विकासमा पनि खास भूमिका खेल्छ ।

५. गृहत्याग 

परापूर्वकालमा पढ्ने उमेर भएपछि बालबच्चाले घरबाट टाढा गएर गुरुबाट शिक्षादीक्षा लिने गरेको कथा हामीले पढेका, सुनेका छौं । यसरी घरमा आश्रित नहुँदा सीप सिक्न, परिश्रम गर्न, मेहनत गर्न सिक्छन् भन्ने आशय हो यो ।

अहिले पढ्नका लागि भनेर घर छाड्नै पर्ने परिस्थिति छैन । यद्यपि घरप्रतिको आशक्ति भने त्याग्नुपर्छ । नभए घरको मोहले उनीहरुलाई पढ्नमा बाधा गरिरहन्छ । त्यसैले घरमै भएपनि घरपरिवारमा परनिर्भर हुने, आशक्ति राख्ने गर्नु उचित हुँदैन ।

ज्ञान र सीपले जीवन सहज 

मान्छेले जीवनमा पूर्णतः पाउन ज्ञान जरुरी छ र त्यससँगै सीप पनि । त्यसैले जीवनलाई सम्पूर्णतामा बुझ्न ज्ञान त चाहियो नै, सीप पनि नभई हुन्न । सीप, दक्षता भनेको जीवनको सौन्दर्य र सुगन्ध हुन् । यसले जीवनलाई सही ढंगले बाँच्नका लागि आधार तय गरिदिन्छ ।

तर यससँगै अर्को महत्वपूर्ण कुरा पनि जोडिएर आउँछ । त्यो हो आचरण ।

विनयशीलता 

ज्ञान र सीप भएपछि मान्छेले प्रतिष्ठा आर्जन गर्छ । धन आर्जन गर्छ । तर बेलाबखत यसले मान्छेलाई अहंकारी बनाइदिन्छ । दम्भ बढाइदिन्छ । त्यसैले ज्ञानी, धनी, पौरखीसँगै मान्छे विनयशील हुनु जरुरी छ । नम्र हुन जरुरी छ ।

दम्भ, अहंकार, घमण्ड जस्ता विकारलाई त्याग्नुपर्छ । सधैं नरम, शिष्ट, शालीन हुनुपर्छ । तब मात्र पढेको कुरा सार्थक हुन्छ । हामीले बालबच्चालाई पढाइसँगै विनयी पनि बनाउनुपर्छ ।

दुःख र सुख जीवन

संसार आफूले सोचेजस्तो वा भनेजस्तो अनुकूल हुँदैन । यहाँ राम्रा वा नराम्रा दुवै प्रवृत्तिका मान्छे हुन्छन् । यहाँ सुख, समृद्धि, खुसी जति छ उत्ति नै दुःख, अभाव, पीडा पनि । बालबच्चालाई हुर्काउँदा हामीले भन्नुपर्छ कि संसारमा सबै कुरा झेल्न तयार हुनुपर्छ । आज सुख छ त भोलि दुःख खप्न सक्नुपर्छ । आज दुःख छ त भोलि सुख पनि आउँछ । त्यसैले दुःख र सुख जीवनमा अभिन्न छन् भनेर बुझाउनुपर्छ ।

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